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# ln, ln1, log2

```the ln of number the ln1 of number the log2 of number ``` Values returned:
`ln `returns a number equal to the base-e` `or natural logarithm of` number`.
`ln1 `returns a number equal to the natural logarithm of 1 +` number`.
`ln2 `returns a number equal to the base-2 logarithm of` number`.

## Examples

```the ln of 2.718282 --returns 1 ln(2.718282) ln1 of 1.718282 --returns 1 ln1(1.718282) log2 of 1024 -- returns 10 log2 of 1024 - 512 -- returns -502 log2 of (1024 - 512) -- returns 9```

## Placeholders

number
An expression that evaluates to a number.

For example:

```169 / 19 pi (60.625 * 500) average(1,4,5,10) i+1 -- (where i is a number) line 1 of fld "Debits"```

Note: Formally, HyperCard distinguishes between factors (simple values) and expressions. The difference between factors and expression matters only if you like to drop parentheses. Most functions take factors as their parameters, which is why` abs of -10 + 2 `returns` 12 `and `abs of (-10 + 2) `returns` 8`. In short, always use parentheses to group things the way you want them to evaluate, and you wonâ€™t have to worry about the difference between factors and expressions.

## Related Topics

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